Tag: PA German

I’ve written before about my recent visit to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where there are many surviving colonial structures built by the Moravians. Adjacent to these structures is an area by Monocacy Creek (Flooding is a problem!) called the Colonial Industrial Quarter, where the industrious Moravians practiced a variety of trades. Some of these industrial buildings are in ruins, but others survive. The entire complex is now part of the Historic Bethlehem Partnership and is worth visiting. Click below for pics and info on some of the buildings. › Continue reading…

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During my recent trip to Pennsylvania, I also stopped by the city of Bethlehem, famous for industry. Bethlehem was founded by the Moravians in 1741. The historic downtown has many Germanic-style colonial buildings erected by the Moravian Church, as well as later historic structures. The Moravians originally lived communally, in separate buildings designated for different “choirs” divided by sex and marital status. The area is still home to the Central Moravian Church and Moravian College. Some books on the subject include: Historical sketch of Bethlehem in Pennsylvania, with Some Account of the Moravian Church (1873), by John Hill Martin; A History of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1892 (1903), by Joseph Mortimer Levering; and Historical Notes on Music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, from 1741 to 1871 (1873), by Rufus A. Grider › Continue reading…

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Ephrata Cloister (1732)

Ephrata Cloister

Leaving the Hans Herr House, our next destination in Lancaster County was Ephrata Cloister, in what is now the town of Ephrata. Ephrata Cloister was a religious community founded in 1732 by Johann Conrad Beissel, who was born in Germany and eventually came to what was then a frontier wilderness in Pennsylvania. He was followed by men and women who had left the Brethren movement and embraced Beissel’s distinctive religious ideas. At the core of the community were celibate brothers and sisters, living and worshiping together, who also sang hymns (many written by Beissel himself), created fraktur (a Pennsylvania Dutch folk art) and operated a German language printing press. The community eventually died out, but many of the original buildings survive and are open as a museum run by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Visitors see an introductory film, are led on a tour of the buildings and are then able to wander on their own and explore the various structures. The story of the community is a fascinating one and, even if one is not interested in all of the religious aspect, there is great beauty in the many buildings which, like the Hans Herr house, evoke a feeling almost of the Middle Ages. The museum gift shop has an excellent selection of books, including a series of pamphlets on archaeological work being done at Ephrata Cloister (as many of the original buildings do not survive). On Google Books there’s available an old two volume history of the community written by Julius Friedrich Sachse and published in 1899: The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania: A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the DunkersVol. I (1708-1742) and vol. II (1742-1800).
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Hans Herr House (1719)

Hans Herr House

Leaving State College, our destination was Lancaster County, PA. This is the heart of what is called the Pennsylvania Dutch (really Pennsylvania German) country. I visited four historic sites in the area over two days. On our first day in the area, I visited the Hans Herr House (1719), 1849 Hans Herr Dr, Willow Street, PA. This is the oldest surviving house in Lancaster County. Built by Mennonite settlers as a home and a meeting house, it is now a museum owned by the Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society. The house is small, but very impressive because it really has a medieval look. The house is made of stone and with its irregular placement of windows, it is quite a contrast with the types of houses I’m used to in New England. That is the great thing, for those interested in old buildings, about traveling to a region like Lancaster County, where the early settlers were not all English and had a quite different building tradition. In addition to the Hans Herr House, the property has has two later farmhouses, built by Herr descendants (one of which has the visitor center, the other is a private home), a reconstructed blacksmith shop and barn, and a barn with a large display of farm implements. Adjacent to the house, there is also an herb garden. › Continue reading…

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