During my recent trip to Pennsylvania, I also stopped by the city of Bethlehem, famous for industry. Bethlehem was founded by the Moravians in 1741. The historic downtown has many Germanic-style colonial buildings erected by the Moravian Church, as well as later historic structures. The Moravians originally lived communally, in separate buildings designated for different “choirs” divided by sex and marital status. The area is still home to the Central Moravian Church and Moravian College. Some books on the subject include: Historical sketch of Bethlehem in Pennsylvania, with Some Account of the Moravian Church (1873), by John Hill Martin; A History of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1892 (1903), by Joseph Mortimer Levering; and Historical Notes on Music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, from 1741 to 1871 (1873), by Rufus A. Grider

Brethren’s House (1748): residence for single men; a large building because of the many trades they carried out inside; used as a hospital during the Revolutionary War; now part of Moravian College.

Gemeinhaus (1741): The Moravians’ original Community House, used as residence and chapel; a log structure, expanded to the east in 1743; exterior covered in weather boarding in 1868; since 1967 it’s been the Moravian Museum.

Bell House (1746): Connects the Gemeinhaus, Old Chapel and Single Sisters’ House; originally a residence for married couples, later used by Moravian Seminary for Girls; additions to the east (1748) and west (1749).

Single Sisters’ House (1744): At first the residence for single men, after 1748 occupied by single women and girls; extended in 1752 and 1773; remained a residence for women for 250 years, now being restored as a museum.

Widow’s House (1767): Built of limestone; last of the choir houses to be built; addition to the east (1794) and annex on south (1889); still used as a residence.

Old Chapel (1751): Built when Gemeinhaus chapel became too small; extends north from east end of Gemeinhaus; originally first floor had dining hall and second floor used for worship; could not enter except from adjoining buildings, but north facade with new entrance added in the mid-nineteenth century.

Nain-Schober House (1758): The only surviving house built by Moravian missionaries and Indians in the village of Nain in the west part of Bethlehem; moved by Andreas Schober to Market Street in 1765; relocated to Heckewelder Place in 1906; currently being restored

Central Moravian Church (1803-1806)

Goundie House (1810): Built by Johann Sebastian Goundie, a brewer, businessman and prominent citizen; now a house museum.

Sun Inn (1758): Built by the Moravians as a guest house; visited by many leaders of the Revolution; now a restaurant & museum.

Bernard Lehman House (1841): Lehman owned a brass foundry.